Hypovolemia shock is normally an emergency situation whereby the heart is incapable of pumping the blood adequately to other parts of the body. This is usually caused by severe blood and fluid loss. This situation may lead to organ failure, which is also caused by the loss of approximately 25% of the blood volume. Additionally, this can be as a result of excessive bleeding from injuries, internal bleeding or cuts. The normal volume of blood in circulation may abruptly decline if an individual lose excess bodily fluids. This may also happen during vomiting, burns and diarrhea. Symptoms include anxiety, agitation, rapid breathing, clammy skin, confusion, weakness, pale skin, and decline in urine output, rapid breathing and poor consciousness. In rare cases, this is disorder may be related with hypotension, rapid heartbeat and low body temperature. Therefore, an individual should seek medical consultation immediately.
Medical Causes of Hypovolemia
Hypovolemia may be caused several medical conditions such as extreme weight loss, marasmus bleeding, dehydration, vomiting, heat stroke and protein energy malnutrition. Marasmus is a condition which is associated with extreme deficiency of calories and proteins. On the other hand, protein energy malnutrition is characterized by lack of sufficient protein intake in order to meet the body’s metabolic processes and needs. Protein energy malnutrition is normally caused by low quality of proteins and no dietary intake, peritonitis and severe vomiting. Peritonitis is a condition where the abdominal lining becomes inflamed.
Other conditions causing Hypovolemic Shock
Health experts agree that several medical conditions such as naked brim cap poisoning, Lassa fever and pseudohypoaldosteronism are the primary conditions that cause the disorder. Naked brim cap is a type of mushroom that is usually brown slimy when wet and has small hairs. It grows in a wild environment and is poisonous in large quantities when consumed. Pseudohypoaldosteronism describes a category of medical disorders whereby the kidney is incapable of responding to aldosterone, thereby resulting in very significant electrolyte imbalances. On the other hand, Lassa fever is normally viral infection that is commonly found in West Africa.
Additional Causes of Hypovolemia
Additional causes of the Hypovolemic shock include excessive sweating, excessive alcohol consumption, use of diuretic, use of vasodilators, blood donation, severe burns and use of the ACE inhibitors. Severe burns normally cause the excessive loss of fluid and edema. Vasodilators are medications that are intended to dilate the blood vessels. On the other hand, the use the ACE inhibitors are also intended to relax the blood vessels.
Treatment options available for Hypovolemia depend solely on the severity. These severity symptoms include fluids by mouth, IV fluids, oxygen dopamine, dopamine, epinephrine, blood transfusion, thrombolytic, and plasma transfusion. Additionally, there are several medications to treat the condition. These are diphenhydramine, H-2 blockers, dobutamine, H-1 blockers, calcium gluconate, B2 blockers, norephinephrine, albuterol, naloxone, glucagon, cimetidine and phenylephrine.
If the disorder is left unattended, it may lead to death. Normally, lack of fluids and blood in the body causes heart attack, damage to internal organs and gangrene of the legs or arms. Therefore, the long term effects of the Hypovolemia shock depends on the rate at which an individual is losing the fluids or the blood.